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B.A.N. List 2.0 

B.A.N. List 2.0 is an analysis published by the organization 5Gyres (https://www.5gyres.org/)

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Quick summary of the analysis B.A.N. List 2.0

Human contact with plastic products and packaging can cause some chemical toxicity. (page 4)

Straws are 6th in rank of products that contaminates our planet. (page 6)

Table showing the performance of different products when left in the environment. (page 7 et 8)

Bioplastic: A popular example is Polylactic acid (also known as PLA). This bioplastic is naturally produced by bacteria. PLA is biodegradable, but have very specific conditionswhere degradation happens. (page 10 and 11)

The Solution Strategy. (page 25)

International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bag and microbeads): A review

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Antarctic fur seals are commonly entangled in plastic marine debris. Ingestion of plastics by birds and turtles have also been widely reported.

A conservative estimate of the overall economic impact of plastics to marine ecosystems is around $13 billion US/year, although the true environmental costs are difficult to monetarize. (page 2)

Macroplastic vs Microplastic

Macroplastics (> 5 mm) enter the marine environment via dumping or poor waste management.

Microplastics comprise: primary microplastics (e.g., microbeads), and secondary microplastics, from degraded macroplastics (e.g., plastic bags).  page 2)

The annual global production of plastic around 300 million tonnes, with roughly 50% disposed of after a single-use. (page 2)

Ingestion of plastics by aquatic organisms is one of the major deleterious environmental impacts in the marine environment. (page 2)

Chronology of global plastic bag policy interventions. (page 4 et 5)

POSSIBLE SOLUTION: Education and outreach programs to modify behaviour should be widely adopted. Incorporating ocean education, pollution, and waste management in schools could be extremely valuable. (page 7)

POSSIBLE SOLUTION: Targeting youth and other stakeholders (e.g., citizens, governments, industry and NGOs) is an effective way to promote positive change and help increase awareness, through events like World Oceans Day. (page 7)

Article written by 'National Geographic' (CIick here to read the article)

Titre: A brief history of how plastic straws took over the world

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Seattle – In July 2018, Seattle became the largest U.S. city to ban plastic straws.

Starbucks - Plans to phase out plastic straws by 2020.

Mcdonald’s – Recently announced it will ban plastic straws at its U.K. and Ireland restaurants.

Alaska Airlines - Will be one of the first airlines to phase out plastic straws and stirrers.

Article written by 'strawlessocean.org' (Click here to read the article)

Titre: Understanding Plastic Pollution

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Recyclable? - Most plastic straws are too lightweight to make it through the mechanical recycling sorter. They drop through sorting screens and mix with other materials and are too small to separate, contaminating recycling loads or getting disposed as garbage.

How do plastic straws get into the ocean? - Plastic straws end up in the ocean primarily through human error, often 1) left on beaches in coastal communities and seaside resorts globally 2) littered OR 3) blown out of trash cans (oftentimes overfilled) or transport boats and vehicles.

What happens once they're in the water? -  When plastic does make it into the ocean it breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces known as “microplastics” rather than biodegrading or dissolving, which poses great threats to marine life including fish.

It is projected that by 2050, 99% of all sea bird species will have ingested plastic. Mortality rate can be “up to” 50%. And, already, research has shown plastic in sea salt, 94% of U.S. tap water, and shellfish.